Thomas Gray, by John Giles Eccardt—48, National Portrait Gallery, London Gray's life was surrounded by loss and death, and many people that he knew died painfully and alone. Inseveral events occurred that caused Gray stress. On 7 November, Mary Antrobus, Gray's aunt, died; her death devastated his family. The loss was compounded a few days later by news that his friend since childhood  Horace Walpole had been almost killed by two highwaymen.
The very long and complex history of homosexual relations within Japanese Buddhist institutions has only now come to light in the English-speaking world with the recent translation of a few key documents and a number of commentaries on them these are referenced throughout the pages below.
My point in making this research available in this journal is not to argue that such relationships should become normative today, for the present configuration of sexuality within modern western culture makes this inconceivable.
Because of the strong reactions that discussion of homosexuality can produce in Anglo-American cultures I have tried to make this an academic argument, referencing all my sources and acknowledging my own speculations as such.
Buddhism and sex in Japan From the earliest times until today, indigenous Japanese religion, known as Shinto, has maintained a sex-positive ideology, particularly with regard to the role of sex in procreation. From the beginning of the two support oomikami, Izanagi no mikoto and Izanami no mikoto, down to the birds and the beasts who receive no instruction, the intercourse of male and female is a way, like nature, that has been transmitted to us.
Buddhism was essentially disinterested in procreation which was, after all, seen as the mechanism whereby beings were chained to a constant round of rebirths in sa.
Although present, Tantric sexual imagery which involved the unification of male and female was of marginal influence in Japan. The organisation of Buddhist monasteries into sexually-segregated communities, often set in the remote countryside or mountains, encouraged the development of a specific style of homoeroticism revolving around young acolytes or chigo.
The homoerotic environment of Buddhist monasteries actually inspired a literary genre, Chigo monogatari Tales about acolyteswhich took as its theme the love between acolytes chigo and their spiritual guides. Japanese Buddhism responded to the homoerotic environment created by a large number of monks living together with youths and boys in a very different way to Christianity which tended to respond to expressions of homoeroticism within monastic communities with vehement paranoia, characterising sodomy as the worst of sexual sins, even worse than incest .
In our region a certain abominable and most shameful vice has developed The befouling cancer of sodomy is, in fact, spreading so through the clergy or rather like a savage beast, is raging with such shameless abandon through the flock of Christ that for many of them it would be more salutary to be burdened with service to the world, than, under the pretext of religion, to be enslaved so easily under the iron rule of satanic tyranny.
Other than acolytes in training to be monks, there were many other young boys in Buddhist monasteries because they served as schools for the children of the elite.
Leupp  reads the very large number of references in literary and artistic sources which depict actual sexual relations between monks and acolytes as reflecting their widespread practice.
I will remain secluded at Kasaki Temple until reaching age forty-one. Having already fucked ninety-five males, I will not behave wantonly with more than one hundred. I will not keep and cherish any boys except Ryuo-Maru. I will not keep older boys in my own bedroom. Among the older and middle boys, I will not keep and cherish any as their nenja [adult role in pederastic relationship].
Unfortunately, Leupp does not contextualise the vow or discuss it in relation to other vows kept on record by the temple. The famous Chigo no sooshi or Acolyte scroll is also often cited in this context . Although the pursuit of beautiful youths may have been a common pastime for some monks in medieval Japan, the love of boys was also given a more serious metaphysical significance in some texts.
However, it must be remembered that the kind of homoerotic liaisons this text recommends take place in very specific circumstances between an adult man and an adolescent youth in the few years before he reaches manhood.
At an ideological or aesthetic level, then, the relationship between monk and acolyte was subject to a code of conduct or even an ascesis which resists a reading of these relationship as simply homo sexual. As pointed out above, many sons of the samurai were educated in Buddhist monasteries and Buddhist paradigms of intergenerational friendships, often sexual in nature, influenced male-male relations in the homosocial world of the samurai more generally.
Women in Japanese Buddhism So far, Japanese Buddhism has been discussed in terms of the leniency with which it dealt with the sexual activities of men. The Japanese feminist Minamoto Junko has been a vocal critic of Buddhist attitudes to women.
However, it is fair to say that the place of women in Buddhism is problematic and has only recently begun to be theorised.
What demerit is there in femaleness? What merit is there in maleness? There are bad men and good women.Difference Between Romantic and Victorian Poetry. Romantic period and Victorian period are two notable periods in literature. The romantic period was an artistic and literary movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18 th century.
Victorian period is the period during the reign of Queen Victoria.
Romanticism and Victorianism are distinct European literary and artistic movements that are grounded in specific historical eras. Romanticism is typically considered to have taken place from the s to the s, and is characterized by emotionally laden language and praise of nature.
Agricultural Education. AGRI Interdisciplinary Agricultural Science and Technology. This course is designed to develop competencies of agricultural science teachers to teach essential elements in agricultural business, agricultural mechanization, animal science, and horticulture and crop science.
 I use the term ‘Anglo-American’ to refer to patterns of (homo)sexuality which have characterised English-speaking Anglo-Saxon societies since the end of the nineteenth century.
These differ in many ways from other ‘western’ societies such as those of southern Europe or Latin America. For an overview of these differences see the work of anthropologist Gilbert Herdt, particularly his.
Analysis of Heaney's Mid-Term Break - Reading a story or poem about death is usually sad and overtly predictable. However, Seamus Heaney inverts this mundane typicality to deliver a .
Alexander Pope The differences between eighteenth-century literature and romantic poems, with respect to history is constituted here. This is seen through the influential works of John Keats and Alexander Pope.